Azure DevOps from Hosted XML process to inherited process

Migrating a Team Foundation Server Azure Devops Server from on-premises to cloud, it is common we have done some customizations to the process templates, which can’t be migrated directly to any of the existing templates in Azure DevOps Services.

When this happens, for every project with customizations, a new Hosted XML process is created in the Azure Devops Services destination, if navigate to: you will see something like this, with the list of all the projects:


As you can see in the figure we have the three basic process template of the inherited process and then a line for every project with its own process which are known as Hosted XML processes. To get full advantage of the new customization UI we can migrate from the Hosted XML to the inherited process. But before proceed review first this article, as some of the process customizations that can be done in the old Hosted XML process are not preserved when migrating to inherited process:

The migration to inherited process is done in two steps: clone the process as inherited process, move the existing process to the inherited process.

Clone process

To clone the process, click on the ellipsis icon in the selected project and click on Clone process to inherited:


This will show a summary of what is going to do and what will be migrated and what will be lost, on of the most important things which will be lost is any workflow restriction you set up in the old process, as the new process model allows Work Items to go from any state to any state:


When you click on continue, it will ask for a new name to the inherited process template and which of the main templates to be set up as parent:


Just click on Ok and after a while we will have the new inherited process template:


Migrate projects

To finish the migration process, now we have to go to each of the projects we want to apply the new inherited process, click on the name Hosted XML project you want to migrate to see its details, and go to Projects tab where you must see the project belonging to this Hosted XML process template:


If you click on the ellipsis on the dropdown menu you will see an option to change process (is the only option available) and if you click it a screen asking to select the destination template will be shown, in which you will be able to select the previously migrated inherited process template, just click ok and you are done.

Now you will have the process using the new inherited process template, and you can start doing customizations with the new model, using the UI directly from Azure DevOps Services rather than using the old XML customization process.

Hope this helps you.

Variable library groups and Azure Key Vault

In my previous post, I explained how to use Azure Key Vault values in a particular Build/Release, but as Vinicius Moura posted in twitter, there is another option using Libraries in your Team Project, and I wanted to just give my opinion or how I use one or another option.

Just to introduce it, Libraries is a method to create Task Variables which can be used across different Builds/Releases in a particular Team Project. To create a Library go to the Build and Release hub in VSTS, click on Library  and then click, on the upper right corner + Variable Group.image

Here we can define a new Library and define its variables and values, just giving the Library a name to then use it in Builds/Releases, and create variables.


Also we have the option to link secrets from Azure Key Vault, as Vinicius pointed. Just one thing, when you link a library to Azure Key Vault secrets, you can’t add new manual variables for that library. In the process of linking to an Azure Key Vault, you will need to select an Azure Subscription, and authorize VSTS for both access the subscription and the desired Azure Key Vault, so be sure you are using an account with the proper rights.


Then you can just click on  + Add  to add new variables from the Azure Key Vault, as, differently from the Azure Key Vault task, it does not adds the contents from the Vault automatically.


Once you create the Library with your custom variables or the Azure Key Vault connection, you can just use it in a Build or Release, in the variables section when editing a build, clicking on Link variable group and selecting the variable group.


When you link the Library group you can start using the variables with the usual syntax on your Build/Release: $(myvariable)

So, now that I explained Libraries, why and when choose this or the task option? Well for me it is just a question on how you are going to use it, and also the related security. By default, if I need values which must be shared across different builds/releases I would go for libraries for sure, but when it comes to Azure Key Vault, they are used to keep things protected and secret, if you create a library with its default permissions, you are sharing the possibility of using this secrets (and potentially leak them) to any VSTS user with contributor permissions in that particular Team Project, so if you do not pretend that, you must take care of setting the appropriate permissions on the Library, this is not a problem or anything, it is something you are suppose to do and take care of.

When you use the task, only people allowed to edit that particular build will be able to use this secrets, of course, you have to take care of this permissions too.

So, in my opinion, if you don’t need to share the variables across several builds/releases, or you just want to keep them as restricted as possible, go with the tasks. If you want to protect a set of values that you want to re-use across builds and releases, go with the libraries.

Just remember, this is not a rule, this is just my opinion, and is always subject to change a lot Smile

Using Azure Key Vault Secrets for your VSTS Releases

DISCLAIMER: I’m assuming you already have created your Azure Key Vault, and stored secrets/certificates in it, if you are not familiar with this (it is super-easy) you can check this article:

This is a short but, at least for me, very useful topic for keeping your deployment secrets more secure. Most of the times, keeping secrets as secret variables on your VSTS definitions is enough, at last, they can’t be “human read” once set the value.

But sometimes, the person who keeps the secret won’t be editing the VSTS Release, and of course they are not going to tell anyone the secret also. If you have an Azure account, well we are talking about VSTS so probably you have it, you have Azure Key Vault, here you can store, secrets and certificates, securely in Azure, only users with the proper rights will be able to access them, but we have also a task in VSTS Releases (and Builds) which can retrieve this secrets (if your VSTS SPN connection has the proper rights) and use them as variables in your Releases/Builds:


How this works? when using this task, we have to configure the Azure Subscription Connection, Key vault name and a filter (comma separated values) for the names of the keys/certificates you want to retrieve or you can use * to retrieve all.


When it retrieves the secrets it will store them in VSTS variables, which can be accessed in subsequent tasks with the usual format $(name). To be more clear, let’s say you have a secret in your  Azure Key Vault which is called “sqlPassword”, when retrieved by this task, it will create a variable which we can in subsequent tasks as $(sqlPassword). Of course this task must be called before trying to use the variable.

But first of all we have to give, explicitly, permissions to the SPN used by VSTS to connect Azure Subscription, to the desired Azure Key Vault. This can be done thought the portal or via this Powershell:

Login-AzureRmAccount -SubscriptionId <Subscription ID>;
$spn=(Get-AzureRmADServicePrincipal -SPN <Service Principal Id>);
Set-AzureRmKeyVaultAccessPolicy -VaultName <Vault Name> -ObjectId $spnObjectId -PermissionsToSecrets get,list;

In this Powershell we have to change <Subscription ID> to the ID in which our Key Vault exists, it must be also the same subscription we select as subscription when we configure the task in the previous step.

Also we need to change the <Service Principal Id> to the ID of the SPN we are using to connect to Azure in the task configuration. To get it you have to go to Services in VSTS:


Select the endpoint you are using to connect to Azure and select Update Service Configuration, so you will see the value:


As you can see we can also get the Subscription ID here if in doubt.

Possible problem: if when executing this Powershell you get this error, you need to update to the latest version of Azure Powershell (

WARNING: Could not load file or assembly ‘Microsoft.Data.Services.Client, Version=, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=31bf3856ad364e35’

And that’s all, if you configured everything correctly, when you run the Release you will be able to access your secrets as VSTS Release/Build variables to use them across the Release/Build, so go and store your secrets securely in Key Vault.

Debugging deployed Azure Web Apps with VSTS Symbol Server

Obviously, debugging an already deployed application, doesn’t matter if Azure or any other environment, is something we must use as a last resort, I would always prefer to be able to reproduce some kind of situation with a local test and correct it. But sometimes we would need to debug an already deployed application, and it is never as easy as click F5 in our Visual Studio. We must connect to remote processes, make sure we have the right version of the code, and more important, be able to match the binaries with the code we have, because surely you always build your applications as Release to deploy them (and if not … run, run and do it).

Having the right version of the application is easy we have branches, tags, and other tools which allows us to locate the right code version. Attach to remote processes is something maybe a little bit more complex, but fortunately we have Remote Debugging tools, and even more, in Azure Web Apps, we can directly enable it from Visual Studio or the portal, and connect automatically, we will see this later.

To make sure we match the binaries with the code we have symbols, but we need to have the right symbols for the binaries, something we can get via a Symbol Server, this is something you can setup by yourself, but luckily now we have a Symbol Server included in VSTS, well it is still in preview mode, but it is something rather interesting to setup and worth it. Let’s start on how to set it up.

Disclaimer: I’m not digging into how to create a build definition, or deploy an application to Azure Web App using Release Management, so if you are not familiar with this kind of tasks first make familiar with these, or just leave me a comment if you find it interesting for next blog posts.

Disclaimer II: You will need Visual Studio 2017 updated to the last update for doing this.

Enabling the feature

As a preview feature, we must first turn it on for our account, or ask something with the needed privileges to turn it on, we just click on the top right, in our account icon, select Preview features and enabled it for the account.image

But in this case, this is not a stand-alone feature, this feature needs the Package Management extension from the Visual Studio Marketplace, which, remember, is not free, but the symbol server added to the package management extension is worth the price.

Publishing symbols

Once set-up the account we can start publishing our symbols. Usually (if not … again … run) we have one build, n deployments. So this is something we are doing during the build. So let’s go to edit the build definition used to generate artifacts for deploy, and add a new step after the build step, and add the publish symbols task.


By default, when adding the task, it is added with the version 1.*, but we will select version 2.* (preview) version of the task, and in the Symbol server type parameter, we select Symbol server in this account … I will remind you the need of Package Management extension.


This is the only change we need to do in our build or releases. So let’s go to next step.

Configuring Visual Studio to consume VSTS Symbol Server

We must configure Visual Studio for a couple of things: instruct it to debug using symbol servers, which symbol servers to use. We will do both of them from the Tools / Options screen.

For the first one we go to Debugging section of tools, and disable Enable just my code, yes, disable it, so Visual Studio is instructed to debug external code.


Now under Debugging / Symbols, click on the icon I show you in the next picture, which will bring the add new Symbol Server from VSTS. You can leave the rest of the parameters with the default values.


On the next screen just select the VSTS account in which you set-up the symbol server. And after that close the Options screen.


Debugging the Azure Web App

If we came this far, we have everything ready to start debugging, so with the version of the code we published the symbols and deployed open into Visual Studio, we will attach to the Web App process for debugging. Be sure to enable the breakpoints you need for the debugging and also notice you will impact any user of the application so better do it in a slot or any environment with no real users.

On Visual Studio 2017 Server Explorer, make sure you are connected to the Azure Subscription, and in the App Service list, locate the resource group containing your app, locate the app (and the slot if you have it), right click it, and select Attach debugger.


This can take a while, but after finish the attach, it will automatically connect to the Symbol Server, get the debug Symbols and you are ready to go and start debugging your web app with the breakpoints and the debugging features of Visual Studio and Azure.

If you receive an alert like this.


Remember to disable the Enable Just my code mentioned earlier in this same post.

Keep it clean

After debugging, this is something I like to do, and is go to the Azure Web App Application Settings, and disable the remote debugging check. Next time you need to debug, following previous steps, Visual Studio will re-enable it for you, but I just like to keep it off … just for the case …


Hope you enjoyed this feature as much as I do.

Phased deployments with Release Management gates

When we are enabling continuous deployment in development teams, there are a lot of things we must take care. First of all, enabling continuous deployment is not about throwing new code or features to the users, nevertheless the quality or the value it gives, this is about enabling a continuous value flow from development to the users.

For this we must ensure the quality and the impact of any new code we are going to deploy. Apart from the usual automated tests during the builds and deploys, there are something, a lot of companies does, which is a phased deployment, in which you are deploying new changes to a particular subset of users, until the new code has been “real life” tested enough to impact 100% of the users of your applications. This is something you probably has already experienced with for example Windows Insiders, Twitter which deploys features to particular subset of users, Facebook does the same, and even VSTS you can opt-in for new features until they are Generally Available for all users.

But for this one of the most important questions is, how do you decide when to deploy to a broader set of users? and also, which mechanism are you going to implement to automate this?.

This two questions can be resolved with the new (in preview at the moment of writing this) feature of Release Management Gates. These are automated approvals we can set, for any particular environment of a Release Management definition, which will be automatically evaluated, prior or post any environment deployment, also these gates are evaluated every specific period of time, until they pass, or until they timeout if they fail every check.

Gates can be set, out of the box, on a variety of things, but new ones can be created, like this example based on twitter sentiments:

  • Azure Functions: The gate will call a particular Azure Function, sent the function a pre-defined message (defined in the gate definition), and wait for the response, even being able to parse the response to check everything went ok.
  • Invoke API Rest: is similar to the previous one, but calling any particular Rest API.
  • Work Items Query: Check if a particular Work Item Query has grown its count of items. Think of this for example a Bugs Query, in which you decide the Gate has failed if the bug count grows over a particular threshold.
  • Azure Monitor: The one I wanted to explain in this article. If checks for any particular (one or n) Azure defined alert, to check if the alert has been thrown. Think for example an alert on performance degradation or number of errors to check in a particular environment, prior to deploy to new broader set of users environments.
Show me the code boxes

First of all, we must enable Gates on our preview Features, so on your Visual Studio Team Services account, click on your profile, and select Preview Features.


And on the preview features for the account (or just for you) enable Gates.


We start with a normal Release Management definition, with two environments, one dependent of another in sequence, and let’s say first one is for early adopters and the next one is the general available, I agree this is a great simplification of any real environment, but is enough for this example.


Now, lets inspect the GeneralAvailability environment pre-deployment approvals clicking on image And enable Gates as a pre-deployment approval, clicking on add  we can see the different choices we have, for this example we will go with Azure Monitor.


We have also there the delay before start evaluating this gate, this is the time needed to pass after previous environment deployment and the moment the first check for the gate is done. Once we add the new gate, we have to fill all the information for the gate.

  • Display Name for the gate.
  • Azure subscription connection, if we don’t have it already we need to setup an Azure connection via services
  • The name of the resource group in which the resource exists in the Azure subscription.
  • The type of the Azure resource, we can choose between Application Insights, App Service, Storage Account, Virtual Machines. In this demo we go with Application Insights resource.
  • Name of the Resource
  • Alert or alerts we want to be monitoring. The alerts must already exists in the chosen Azure Resource, but we will see this later on this post.

When we have this information filled, if we continue going down on that same screen, we can fill several options for all the gates.


First we have the timeout which is the time after which, we finish the deployment for this environment as failed if any of the gates has not passed, so we can’t go on with the environment. Sampling interval is the period of time between each check of the gate. This times by default are, respectively, 15 and 5 minutes, but they can be longer, even days, so you have time enough to go on with the early adopters (for example) environment before going ahead.

Also, for the case there are manual approvals before the deployment, you can select between three different options, like (as seen in the image) manual approvals must be done before start checking the gates, manual approval needed only after all gates has passed, or manual approval after each gate.

With this we would have the gate, but for the case you are not familiar with Azure alerts, just one thing more. For this example we chosen Azure monitor against an Application Insights Alert, so what I created before going on with all of this, I had my Application Insights resource created and configured for my selected app or Azure environment for the, in this case, EarlyAdopters environment (for the case you are not familiar with Application Insights check it here).


And if e click on Alerts, we can see the configured alerts, and go to specific alert configuration, the one we selected on the Azure Monitor Gate.image

In this case the alert will raise if in the last 5 minutes, more than 2 errors has occurred in the application.

When we finish this configuration, we will start deploying the application to the early adopters environment, hopefully users will start using the new features or version of the application, after the configured time for the gate, VSTS will check for the alert, if the alert has not been raised, it will continue with the next environment deployment, if the gate has been raised, it will continue waiting for the next check of the gate, until timeout configured occurs or the gate passes.

I hope you liked gates as much as I like them, as conclusion, when working with phased continuous deployment it is important to establish which are your gates defining how to move from one phase to another, and afterwards, configure them as you need, and configure your phased deployment with VSTS Release Management.

Work Items bulk edit with templates on VSTS

There are some occasions in which you need to apply the same changes to multiple Work Items, not only once, but several times during a project, for sure most of you already know the edit selected items feature, with several Work Items selected, just right click and select edit (sorry I had to protect the innocent on the captures)  :

image  image

This allows you to edit all the selected Work Items and make the changes to the fields you selected. The only point with this, is when you need to do it several times, and always apply the same values to the same fields, as it is a little bit tedious.

  1. So we have Work Item templates, we start from the same point, select several Work Items, in this case all of them must be from the same type, but I will explain this later, right click, and select Templates/Manage:image
  2. This bring us to the template editor screen, in this screen you will see we can define as much templates as we want for each type of Work Item, that’s the reason I said in the previous point all selected Work Items must be from the same type, as you will apply a template for a particular type:
  3. When clicking on New template button, it will open a screen for stating which are the values for the different fields for this template:
  4. When you save it, and go back to the list of Work Items (you will need to refresh the browser window), select the Work Items you want, right click, and now, under Templates option, you will have this newly created template, and once applied to the selected Work Items, it will apply the values to the fields selected in the template:

As you can see, templates can simplify our editing a lot when moving work across teams, organizing backlogs, bugs, etc. so go and check which would be your needed templates and go create them. Just remember, they must be defined per Work Item Type, maybe it is just a small “cons” for this, as when we used to do the bulk editing, we can select different Work Item Types, but for repetitive editing, templates are far more powerful.

Roll-out deployments with Visual Studio Team Services Deployment Groups

Disclosure: This post assumes you are familiar with Team Build and Release Management

Recently Microsoft announced Deployment Groups Preview for Visual Studio Team Services (VSTS). Until now, if you were using the latest version of Release Management, the only option for deployments are the agent-less option, referring for the no need for an agent on the deployment machines (of course you need a VSTS Build/RM agent). For me this has it advantages, enabling deployment scenarios in which you are not able to install an agent on the final machines, which usually is preferred by operations guys, and for me also (less things to take care of …)

But this leads us to other disadvantages, in example, if you want to deploy an application to a set of servers using current tasks, you will need first to enable Powershell Remote by hand, also you will have to manage by yourself all the pipelines to do a roll.out deployment (not deploying the latest version to all machines at once), so you don’t have an easy way to just deploy just to a set of machines and gradually deploy the new version to all machines to prevent service stops and also to be more aware of possible fails.

With Deployment Groups, you will need to first install the deployment agent on the final machines, and then you will be able to add the different machines to different deployment groups to be used in the pipelines, but also, instruct Release Management to deploy gradually to the machines belonging to a Deployment Group. Also, this can be used to create different pipelines, to deploy gradually, in a controlled way, the version to different set of servers so you can gradually provide the latest version of the application to different group of users (this will sounds you familiar if you are used on how Facebook, Twitter or even VSTS deploys its new versions).

Let’s start with this, first, of course this is only “supported” for On-Premises scenarios, or IaaS scenarios on any cloud, this is not supported on PaaS, as you won’t be able to install the agent.

To install the agent, if you have your own on-prem servers or you are using IaaS on a cloud different from Azure, you will need to go to your VSTS subscription, to the Deployment Groups section under Build & Release section, and you will see this:image

First time you enter here you will be shown to create a new Deployment Group, when you click “Add deployment group” you will be asked the provide a name and then you will be shown this screen, with a Powershell snippet to be execute on the machine you want the agent to be installed, be sure to select “Use a personal access token” for the case you just want to use a token for authentication, select copy script to clipboard, paste t on the machine on an admin Powershell console and that’s all.


If you are using a Virtual Machine on Azure, this is even more simple, as you can install it as an extension, just be sure to have the Deployment Group (just create it with a name) on VSTS, and then on your VM, under extensions, select and configure the Team Agent extension:


Now, when creating the Release, in the pipelines for the environments, you can select add a new phase of Deployment Group type:


If we add a new phase like this, on its options, we can see this options:


Notice we can even use tags for the machines inside the Deployment Groups to even have more fine grained control on which machines we are going to deploy a version of the application. Also notice how in the Deploy To options, we can gradually deploy (1/2 targets, 1/4 targets, 1 target, custom …) the application to the machines belonging to the Deployment Group. In this capture I have selected a Deployment Group with only 1 machine, that’s why shows Not applicable …

This gives us a lot of control, so for example we can deploy to one quarter of the machines of the group at once, taking them out of service, but not affecting the global service, deploy the application here, put them onto service again, stopping the next subset of machines, deploying, starting, and so on to the rest of the machines. Also if the deployment fails on any subset of the machines, it won’t continue thus not affecting the rest of the machines in the Deployment Group, givin us that fine grained control over the deployments.

Now we can start adding the needed tasks for our deployment, but notice this tasks will execute directly on the machines we are deploying, so if in our previous agent-less deployments we used to have Remote Powershell tasks in example, here we will use normal Execute Powershell tasks to execute any Powershell needed on the target machines, as it will be the deployment agent inside the target machines the one which will execute them, this applies also for any file copy tasks and so on, as everything will be launched locally.

Hope this leads you to interest on Deployment groups, and start to thinking on them for your on-prem or IaaS deployments. You can have more info on Deployment Groups here:

Test and feedback extension

Earlier in October Microsoft announced General Availability for the Test and Feedback extension for Google Chrome (and yes, there is no Edge version yet). This extension was previously called Exploratory Testing Extension, if you already tried it before.

I have been using this extension with some customers since early versions, and sincerely after seen how it evolved I must send a lot of kudos to the team, it is a great way to share findings on bugs and tests but also for feedback. Basically this extension allow teams (and stakeholders) to record sessions in web applications which they can share the results with the rest of the teams in several work item types: as bugs, tasks of even tests cases with the steps from the exploration.

I found this is a great way for stakeholders who are not used to write long descriptions or feedback acceptance texts to give quick feedback and communicate unexpected behaviors quickly to developers. As well as it allow developers to receive quick and actionable feedback within VSTS and TFS directly.

As you can see in the next image, when we, after recording, choose to create a new Work Item, it stores as steps with automatic image captures, all the steps done during exploration:


It is remarkable also that you can add additional information like: notes, screenshots, and even video with voice recording !!! (and yes, my customers love especially this last two ones … it saves a lot of time from writing). Also it has a couple of modes of working:

  • Standalone: you can use it without even a connection to a TFS/VSTS and after the session it produces an HTML report of the session. At this moment I haven’t used this mode so much, as all of of my customers are in TFS or VSTS so I haven’t found this very useful for my scenarios.
  • Connected mode: you connect to a Team Project on TFS or VSTS for the session, everything gets recorded on the exploratory testing sessions for TFS, and also you can create bugs, tasks or test cases with data from the session. This is really the mode I have been using almost all of the time.

And how this works? well first install the Google Chrome extension, and then you will have this button: image on your Google Chrome toolbar, just click it, and select the mode for the first time (you can change it later):


Then just click on the play icon image and start recording, as there is already a very good documents on the Visual Studio ALM Blog, let me resume them for you:

  • General announcement and overview: General data about the extension and main announcement on GA.
  • Capture information as screenshots, video, notes, page load data and more: interesting to discover how to use the different type of information which you can capture in your sessions for adding them later in Work Items.
  • Artifact creation: How to create the different type of work items or reports (on standalone mode) after the sessions and including the additional information.
  • Team collaboration: Information about how to use in the two different modes and with different access levels to TFS and VSTS and how to consult the results afterwards in the form of reports, sessions or artifacts captured. To fully understand this one it is important to read the two previous ones. Specially interesting is how to use it with Stakeholders with limited access.

So go ahead, install the extension, and start sharing the findings between teams and Stakeholders, I’m sure you will like it as much as I do.

Sample VSTS Build and Release Management task for Yarn package manager

During this weekend I wanted to try the new package manager Facebook created: Yarn, one of it’s bigger claims is to be faster than normal npm, although it uses the same package repositories as npm. this is done, as far as I know, using improvements in transfer the files along with a local package cache, so you don’t have to go always to npm to restore a package you already restored previously for other project.

As locally it was everything working smoothly, I decided create a new build task for VSTS so I can use it in my builds. First point it is only based to be used with your own agents for several reasons: first it has a demand which requires yarn to be installed (hosted agents does not have it … yet …), second, as said previously it uses a local cache to be faster, so at this moment, it made no sense to me to prepare something to be used with hosted agents, remember hosted agents are created on-the-fly so unless you need to restore packages for  several projects per build (next scenario I will try to cover), Yarn will be not necessary (well I agree it also improves download speed, but …).

So, for this first version, I just looked at the code of the current npm task and modified it to use Yarn, it is pretty simple and straightforward. The code is in my github account:

Feel free to see it, modify it, play with it and install it, I will be reviewing it for some improvements.

PD: Just as I was writing this post, I noticed something I should have look before … There is already a Yarn task in the Marketplace, hehehe, as I mention in my talk about creating custom tasks: always look if there is something available before build it … so well .. my fault … but, still, I will continue trying to improve it.

Creating custom tasks for VSTS Team Build and Release Management slides

Recently I gave a talk a out creating custom tasks for Team Build and Release Management for VSTS and also for Team Foundation Server, as also I’m starting again to write here (with lots of articles at first with ideas I had in my mind) I thought it also could be a good idea to leave links to content here.

It is in Spanish, but well, there is a bunch of useful links in the PPTX. It was mainly based on creating tasks with Javascript but I cover also Typescript (well both of them are Javascript executed with NodeJS at the end of the day) and PowerShell.

So here are the slides:

And also the source code used in the demos, it was a very basic set of tasks for .NET Core projects to restore packages, build and publish:
Have fun.